A DC motor refers to a rotating motor that can convert DC electric energy into mechanical energy or convert mechanical energy into DC electric energy. It is a motor that can convert between DC electrical energy and mechanical energy. When it operates as a motor, it is a DC motor, which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy; when it operates as a generator, it is a DC generator, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Advantages of DC motor:
1. Good starting and speed regulation performance, wide and smooth speed regulation range, strong overload capacity, and little influence by electromagnetic interference;
2. The DC motor has good starting characteristics and speed regulation characteristics;
3. The torque of the DC motor is relatively large
4. Maintenance is cheaper;
5. The DC of the DC motor is more energy-saving and environmentally friendly than the AC.
Disadvantages of DC motors:
1. DC motors are more expensive to manufacture and have carbon brushes;
2. Compared with asynchronous motors, DC motors are complicated in structure, inconvenient to use and maintain, and DC power supplies are required;
3. The complex structure limits the further reduction of the volume and weight of the DC motor, especially the sliding contact between the brush and the commutator causes mechanical wear and sparks, which makes the DC motor have many failures, low reliability, short life and maintenance The maintenance workload is heavy.
4. Reversing sparks not only cause electrical corrosion of the commutator, but also a source of radio interference, which will have harmful effects on the surrounding electrical equipment. The larger the motor's capacity and the higher the speed, the more serious the problem. Therefore, the brushes and commutators of ordinary DC motors limit the development of DC motors to high speed and large capacity.